Network requirements and recommendations for Zaptec Chargers

Zaptec chargers require an internet connection to be able to communicate with Zapcloud.  
This article is primarily for network administrations and other people who manage the network on site. If you are trying to connect the chargers to a network, one of these articles should help: 

 

Learn how to connect Zaptec Pro to network 

Learn how to connect Zaptec Go to network 

 

Supported network solutions 

  Zaptec Pro Zaptec Go ZapCharger Pro (expired) Zaptec Home 4G (expired)

 4G LTE-M1 eSIM from Telenor

 ✔️ ✔️ Only for
ZCS030772 → 31071
Only for ZCH04 →

 WiFi 2.4 GHz IEEE802.11 b/g/n (channel 1, 6 & 11)

✔️ ✔️ ✔️ ✔️

 PLC - HomePlug Green PHY, 10Mbit/s

 

✔️   ✔️  

 

☝️ Each charging station uses approx. 5MB for each charge cycle performed. The anticipated data traffic for every Zaptec Pro is around 3 MB a day.

 

Network security

All traffic and communication between the charging stations and the cloud solution are encrypted. All the following network services are required to allow Zaptec Pro to work together with Zaptec Portal. All the ports stated are outgoing ports, and you have to open them in active firewalls. Zaptec Pro links to the necessary services without opening incoming ports, even if they are located behind a NAT.

MQTT
TCP port 8883: zapcloud.azure-devices.net

A connection to Azure IoT Hub, which uses MQTT over TLS, acts as a primary communication channel between Zaptec Pro and Zaptec Portal. The condition of the charger is transmitted to Zaptec Portal, and it receives control commands such as start/ stop charging. Communication is encrypted using TLS v1.2, and the server certificate is verified by Zaptec Pro. When it is connected, the server verifies the charger by means of a unique password that is generated during production. More information on Azure IoT Hub can be found here: https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/azure/iot-hub/about-iot-hub

HTTPS
TCP port 443 (multiple domains)

Zaptec Pro connects to Zaptec Portal by means of HTTPS in order to download firmware updates. This communication is encrypted. Zaptec Pro verifies the server certificate before the update is download, and the firmware update itself is verified cryptographically before being installed.

The following domains are used during firmware updates:

- zapcloud-api.azurewebsites.net

- devices.zaptec.com

- api.zaptec.com

Outgoing port

Port Type port Domain(s)
123 UDP no.pool.ntp.org
443 TCP

zapcloud-api.azurewebsites.net

devices.zaptec.com

api.zaptec.com

8883 TCP zapcloud.azure-devices.net
53 DNS

 

DHCP
UDP port 68

DHCP is used on the local network to assign an IP address to Zaptec Pro and give the IP address to the DNS server. DHCP server with a sufficient number of IP addresses – one for every device connected. When installing with dynamic IP addresses (DHCP), it is particularly important that the network is dedicated. If the network is shared with others, it is easy to run out of IP addresses, resulting in the chargers risking the connection. If the lease time is too long, it can take time for the chargers to get a new assigned IP address. Since the chargers are individually connected, each charger requires its own IP address, so make sure there is enough in the DHCP.

 

DNS
UDP port 53

Zaptec Pro uses DNS look up the IP addresses of the domains used to communicate Zaptec Portal.

If the DHCP server does not specify a DNS server, or if it does not respond promptly, Zaptec Pro uses the DNS server (or DNS servers) specified by the DHCP server, in addition to Google (8.8.8.8) and Cloudflare (1.1.1.1) DNS servers.

 

NTP
UDP-port 123: no.pool.ntp.org

If the Zaptec Pro real-time clock is wrong, the charging station cannot authenticate itself with Zaptec Portal. Zaptec Pro has to be connected to an NTP server so that the internal clock can be updated. This communication takes place via UDP port 123.

The NTP server used by Zaptec Pro is no.pool.ntp.org.

The hostname used for NTP is static. It cannot be changed by the user at present.

 

Troubleshooting

Zaptec devices are designed to automatically reconnect to network i in the event of a failure.

Wireless internet connections can be affected by several external factors.

  • Coverage and signal strength
  • External influences such as interference
  • Local network settings and network equipment

If the charging station has not received a new IP address from the network, the charging station will self-assign an address after several attempts. This happens if the IP address expires and is no longer valid. A restart will force the charging station to try to reconnect.

You should also take reboot of WiFi extenders, access points or repeater.

After reboot, the system will boot in 2-3 minutes.

 
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